The Holy Quran Commentary Sura 3:Al-i Imran & Family of Imran
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Sura 3:Al-i Imran & Family of Imran
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[Shakir 3:1] Alif Lam Mim.
[Yusufali 3:1] A. L. M.
[Pickthal 3:1] Alim. Lam. Mim.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:1]

See the commentary of verse 1 of al Baqarah.

[Shakir 3:2] Allah, (there is) no god but He, the Everliving, the Self-subsisting by Whom all things subsist
[Yusufali 3:2] Allah! There is no god but He,-the Living, the Self-Subsisting, Eternal.
[Pickthal 3:2] Allah! There is no Allah save Him, the Alive, the Eternal.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:2]

Refer to the commentary of verse 255 of al Baqarah for "Allah! There is no god save He, the ever-living, the self-subsisting." Hayy, the ever-living, and qayyum, the self-subsisting, are the two attributes of Allah which break up and blot out the absurd doctrine of the divinity of Jesus Christ. He, who did not have an existence before his creation, like any other mortal, was brought into being by Allah, therefore, cannot be hayy, the everliving; and also he cannot be qayyum, the self-subsisting, because, according to the Christians, he was crucified.

Ibna Ishaq says that verses 3 to 80 of this surah were revealed about the Christians of Najran whom the Holy Prophet with his Ahl ul Bayt confronted in a spiritual contest known as the event of mubahilah (see commentary of verse 61 of this surah).

A great deal of metaphysical nonsense, based on conjecture and speculation, is put forward by the Christians in support of their claim, yet they themselves do not understand the doctrine of divinity of Jesus, which they take as true without examination or proof. Moreover, there is no consensus among their theologians. The most popular belief is triune, three in one, or a trinity in unity-God is a spiritual organism, having living components which can be called organs only so long as they remain united and interrelated to each other in the whole, therefore, God is one but has components which perform separate functions. Jesus has a mysterious double nature which makes him a member of the trinity. The idea of trinity or the doctrine of divinity of Jesus was not given by prophet Isa. Please refer to the quotations of the Old and the New Testaments given in the commentary of verse 255 of al Baqarah.

All organisms are finite. To function in a harmonious whole the components must be interdependent. There must be an omnipotent will or a primal cause to keep the diverse components together, without being disunited, in order to let them work in harmony. The primal cause is God. None of the components or their whole can be God because they obey and follow the will of the primal cause.

Hayy, the everliving, is He who knows and acts freely without any limitations. Any organism whose components are finite and dependent cannot be an everliving infinite.

Qayyum, the self-subsisting, (a magnified form of the adjective qayam-standing and enduring) is He who stands (subsists) by Himself and all other stand (are subsisted) by His eternal endurance.

Anything, composed of components with separate functions, is governed by the law of cause and effect; and that which needs reason or cause to be effective or sufficient cannot be self-subsisting, "Allah is the self-subsisting" means that to be effective or sufficient He does not need a reason or cause because He Himself is the prime cause. Now it becomes clear that the hypothesis of the scholars and the theologians of the Christian church not only fail to convince the seekers of truth but also create chaos and confusion.

[Shakir 3:3] He has revealed to you the Book with truth, verifying that which is before it, and He revealed the Tavrat and the Injeel aforetime, a guidance for the people, and He sent the Furqan.
[Yusufali 3:3] It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the Book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this, as a guide to mankind, and He sent down the criterion (of judgment between right and wrong).
[Pickthal 3:3] He hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture with truth, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, even as He revealed the Torah and the Gospel.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:3]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Tawrat, Injil and the books, mentioned here and in other verses of the Quran, refer to that which was revealed to Musa, Isa and other prophets. Tawrat (the revealed will of Allah) was revealed to Musa. In Hebrew it means light. But the Old Testament is a collection of several other books in addition to the Pentateuch. The four gospels of the New Testament are not the Injil revealed to prophet Isa. These gospels contain only some extracts of the sayings of Isa, and narrate his activities in Galilee, Jerusalem and other habitations of the Jews. The Christian Bible is a book of traditions like the books of traditions written by Muslim, Bukhari and other writers of traditions. These four gospels were written by the followers of Jesus, whom the Christian church proclaims as the apostles. In fact the teaching of Jesus is the gospel, which means glad tidings or good news, because the advent of the last prophet of Allah,

the Holy Prophet, was foretold by him, as mentioned in John 14: 16, 17; and 15: 26; and 16: 7 to 13 (see commentary of verse 40 of al Baqarah). The Old and the New Testaments, known as the Bible, is an edited edition of the corrupted and distorted Jewish scripts, prepared to give currency to the doctrine of trinity.

It is mentioned in Mark 1: 15 that Jesus asked his disciples to believe in the gospel and preach it to the children of Israel. The gospel referred to by Isa was the Injil, original text of which is not available. On account of theological considerations adhered to by the first council of Venice, the four gospels, written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John; are said to be authentic, otherwise there is no historical evidence to support this claim. There were other gospels written by some other disciples but they are treated as apocryphal (spurious) and non-canonic.

The Quran is the only uncorrupted book of Allah, containing the true word of Allah in its original purity, revealed to the Holy Prophet, who pronounced it as it was revealed to him, recorded then and there, preserved, never tampered with, and transferred to generation after generation.

Falsehood cannot come near it from before it nor from behind it. (It is) a revelation from the all-wise, the most praised. (Ha Mim: 42)

For kitab see commentary of verse 2 of al Baqarah.

Bil haqq means (with) truth, certainty, reason, justice and proof, in contrast to the false notions and fabricated dogmas of the other corrupted religions and creeds.

Musaddiqan means the Quran verifies and confirms the preachings of the earlier prophets about the unity of Allah and His demand from man to do good and adopt righteousness.

Furqan means that which teaches us to distinguish between good and evil, truth and falsehood. It also means salvation. It is another name of the Quran.

[Shakir 3:4] Surely they who disbelieve in the communications of Allah they shall have a severe chastisement; and Allah is Mighty, the Lord of retribution.
[Yusufali 3:4] Then those who reject Faith in the Signs of Allah will suffer the severest penalty, and Allah is Exalted in Might, Lord of Retribution.
[Pickthal 3:4] Aforetime, for a guidance to mankind; and hath revealed the Criterion (of right and wrong). Lo! those who disbelieve the revelations of Allah, theirs will be a heavy doom. Allah is Mighty, Able to Requite (the wrong).
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:4]

Those who disbelieve in Allah's signs shall be severely punished. The verses of the Quran are His signs. Signs also refer to the miracles the messengers of Allah and His chosen representatives (the Ahlul Bayt) put into operation under His command and guidance, for which readers are requested to refer to the commentary of verses 50, 56, 60, 65 and 243 of al Baqarah.

[Shakir 3:5] Allah-- surely nothing is hidden from Him in the earth or in the heaven.
[Yusufali 3:5] From Allah, verily nothing is hidden on earth or in the heavens.
[Pickthal 3:5] Lo! nothing in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allah.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:5]

Allah knows the hidden, the manifest, the seen and the unseen. He is aware of everything and every event in the universe, because He is the creator of all things. Prophet Isa has made it clear in his following statement that he was only a mortal, created by Allah, and not god as the Christian church wrongly claims:

But about the day or that hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, not even the son; only the Father. (Mark 13: 32).

In surah al Nazi-at Allah informs the Holy Prophet that he does not have to explain to the people when the hour will be, because He (Allah) alone knows its term or termination.

[Shakir 3:6] He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He likes; there is no god but He, the Mighty, the Wise
[Yusufali 3:6] He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases. There is no god but He, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
[Pickthal 3:6] He it is Who fashioneth you in the wombs as pleaseth Him. There is no Allah save Him, the Almighty, the Wise.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:6]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

"As He likes" implies the omnipotence of the divine will. He does what He wills.

A thorough study of the formation and development of the embryo in any specie, brought into being by the particular protoplasm of its member, proves that it is a carefully designed operation. The way in which the parts of an individual, the members of a specie, and all the species are connected with each other, as the components of the universe, provides sufficient proof that the creator, designer and architect of the whole as well as the components is He, the almighty, the all wise, the one self-subsisting (qayyum), besides whom there is no god.

Someone asked Tolstoy:

"Do you see the hand of God (a miracle) in the birth of Christ?"

He replied:

"I see the hand of God in the birth of every child."

The hand of God is visible in the working of the whole universe. He is the first, the everlasting, the apparent, the hidden.

Although ordinarily the laws enforced by the will of Allah keep the creation in operation, yet He is not unable to manifest the extraordinary, which the ignorant or the pseudo intellectuals deny, because He has power over all things and He does what He wills. Reproduction by means of an unfertilised ovum is common in insects and bees. If the author of the nature so wills, He can make use of this process in a human being also. So He created Isa without a father. This verse is an introduction to the birth of Isa, narrated in the subsequent verses.

[Shakir 3:7] He it is Who has revealed the Book to you; some of its verses are decisive, they are the basis of the Book, and others are allegorical; then as for those in whose hearts there is perversity they follow the part of it which is allegorical, seeking to mislead and seeking to give it (their own) interpretation. but none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say: We believe in it, it is all from our Lord; and none do mind except those having understanding.
[Yusufali 3:7] He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:" and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding.
[Pickthal 3:7] He it is Who hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture wherein are clear revelations - they are the substance of the Book - and others (which are) allegorical. But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension by seeking to explain it. None knoweth its explanation save Allah. And those who are of sound instruction say: We believe therein; the whole is from our Lord; but only men of understanding really heed.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:7]

As explained in the commentary of verse 2 of al Baqarah the Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet. He knew the true meaning of every verse, or after him, it was Ali who claimed that he knew when, why and for whom every verse of the Quran was revealed.

Most of the verses of the Quran are clear and decisive. There is no ambiguity in them. They are known as the muhkamat. They relate to the fundamentals of the faith, such as the oneness of Allah, the directions pertaining to the practice of the faith and the laws governing the day to day life of the faithful. They can neither be changed nor modified. Any man of average intelligence can understand and follow them.

The mutashabihat are the verses which have been composed in subtle and profound diction and style. They carry implications other than the literal meanings, and therefore, are capable of giving different significations, like "The hand of Allah is on their hands" in verse 10 of al Fat-h. Verse 1 of al Hud says that the Quran is a book of clear and decisive verses. Verse 23 of al Zumar says that Allah has sent down the very best discourse as a book conformable in its repetition and consimilarity. Only the men of understanding who possess a higher level of intelligence contemplate and find out the meaningful implications of such verses. Average and ordinary minds cannot figure out or have knowledge of the real purport of such verses, and if they try this on their own, they are bewildered and go astray. As mentioned in the commentary of verse 1 of al Baqarah, the huruf muqatta-at are also meaningful but their subtle and profound meanings are known to Allah and His chosen representatives (Muhammad and ali Muhammad) only. Therefore, those who know the true purport of these symbolic letters occupy the highest position in the domain of knowledge and wisdom. In the well-known tradition of thaqalayn the Holy Prophet has clearly made known the fact that whoso remains attached with the Quran and his Ahl ul Bayt, after his departure from this world, will never go astray, because these two weighty authorities will never be separated from each other, and joined together, they shall meet the Holy Prophet at the spring of Kawthar; and "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate", said the Holy Prophet in order to guide the faithfuls so that, to have knowledge of the Quran, they must refer to Ali and his Ahl ul Bayt, who alone know the true meanings of the mutashabihat.

Zaygh means disease, perversity, evil, and wicked intention, the inclination to go against the truth and to blunder, revolt and go astray. Fitna means to create mischief, or to create difference of opinion and to mislead.

"None knows its interpretation except Allah and those (who are) firmly rooted in knowledge", renders null and void all attempts made by scholars to discover the true meanings of the mutashabihat. The firmly rooted in knowledge are those whom Allah Himself gives the knowledge, as verse 49 of al Ankabut says: But it is clear revelations in the hearts of those who have been given knowledge. Therefore, the observation of the Ahmadi commentator that reading various passages in the light of each discover the true significance of ambiguous passages, is based upon his inclination to go out of the right course. The Christians also try in vain to assign divinity to Isa by calculating the numerical value of the haruf muqatta-at, and misinterpret the complex verses to suit their dubious theories.

How the complex verses can be interpreted is not mentioned in this verse, nor anywhere in the Quran, but it is clearly disclosed that besides Allah only those, endowed with divine knowledge, know the true meanings of the mutashabihat. The firmly rooted in knowledge are the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, the thoroughly purified ones (Ahzab: 33), who possess the desired purity of heart and soul, essential for receiving and holding the truth in order to use it (Waqi-ah: 77 to 79) to do good to themselves and to others. It is obvious that there is no conceivable necessity of revealing complex verses or letter symbols if even the Holy Prophet, to whom the Quran was revealed, did not know their meanings. It is only a hypothetical inquiry, otherwise there is the clear mention of rasikhuna fil ilm (the firmly rooted in knowledge) in this verse, the first among whom is the Holy Prophet, and after him, as said earlier, his Ahlul Bayt are the custodians of his knowledge and wisdom, who alone are entitled to interpret every word of the Quran.

In reply to Anas bin Malik's query about rasikhuna fil ilm the Holy Prophet said:

"They are those whose hands do not do aught but that which is just, righteous and good; whose tongues do not utter aught but that which is true; whose hearts and minds are enlightened and rational; whose stomachs are free from that which is forbidden."

The ayah al tat-hir (Ahzab: 33) confirms that only the thoroughly purified Muhammad and ali Muhammad are the rasikhuna fil ilm. Verse 13 of Luqman says that polytheism (shirk) is the most grievous inequity, the worst type of impurity. It is a historical fact that all the companions of the Holy Prophet, before embracing Islam, for a long time in their lives, were idolworshippers. The Holy Prophet, Bibi Fatimah and Ali ibna abi Talib and their children were the only ones who were free from the impurity of polytheism right from the day they were born. All Muslims, in every age, add karamallahu wajhu (Allah graced and honoured his face above others) after the name of Ali, because he never worshipped any ghayrallah (other than Allah). The Holy Prophet pointed out the essential purity of body and soul in Ali, equal to his own purity, when he said:

"O Ali! Your flesh is my flesh, your blood is my blood. You and I are from one and the same divine light"

Verses 18 of Ali Imran, 162 of al Nisa, 49 of Ankabut, and 11 of al Mujadalah refer to those who have been divinely endowed with knowledge.

As ordinary human beings are unable to know the meanings of the mutashabihat, the divine mercy guides the sincere seekers of the truth to turn to the ahladh dhikr, the Holy Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt (see commentary of verse 43 of al Nahl and verse 7 of al Anbiya):

"So ask the people of dhikr (the reminder or the Quran) if you do not know."

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Nothing in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allah, the self-subsisting, because He is the author of the book of creation (the development of the embryo has been mentioned in the previous verse as an example). In this verse He says that the author of the book of creation is also the author of the book of legislation (the Quran).

The book of creation (the universe) contains miscellaneous signs. Some are clear. Some are intricate and perplexing. For example (in the book of creation) the function and the significance of every part of the human structure has been studied and defined except the "appendix". Now a rational student of the book of creation will say:

"As no part is without some significance, this also must have some meaning, though I have not yet understood it."

On the contrary a mischief-maker will mix up that which is known with that which is not known and deny both by saying:

"As no reason or significance is found in this part, therefore, there is no reason or significance in the whole."

Likewise in the book of legislation, some signs (verses) are clear and decisive (muhkam), and some have several possible meanings (mutashabih), therefore, the rational mind will try to understand the mutashabih (unclear) verses in the light of the muhkam (clear and decisive) verses, by proceeding from the known to the unknown or from the concrete to the abstract; but the perverse mind will judge that which is certainly precise and definite in the light of the complex so as to mislead people by dubious misinterpretations.

Verse 1 of al Hud says that all the verses of the book are well arranged and firmly established. The arrangement of the words in the verses and the verses in the surahs is so accurate and proper that they all form a consistent unity, though they were separately revealed. It implies that the Quran was already arranged and established before its revelation, which is confirmed by verse 105 of Bani Israil. In verse 23 of al Zumar, the book is presented as consistent, consimilar and conformable in its parts (mutashabihan). But in this verse mutashabihat refers to the meanings, the implications, the connotations and the denotations of the complex passages.

Muhtam (clear) and mutashabih (complex) are relative terms. What is unclear to some may be apparent and definite to others. There may be quite a few features and viewpoints inherent in certain ideas, or commands, or narrations. Studying them from a particular angle will make their meaning and purpose crystal clear but their clarity may turn into obscurity when they are viewed from another standpoint. At all events, the complex should be examined and interpreted in the light of that which is clear and decisive, or as explained by the Holy Prophet, or by those whose authority has been established by the Holy Prophet and the Quran (see pages 1 to 7, commentary of verses 6 and 7 of al Fatihah, and verses 2, 30 to 37 and 124 of al Baqarah). In the light of verses 16 to 19 of al Qiyamah, the divine agency collects, recites and interprets the Quran. As the book is a guidance for mankind, there should be no unintelligible or incomprehensible passage in it. There is none. As asserted by the Ahlul Bayt, rasikhuna fil ilm is conjuncted with Allah and yaquluna is an adverbial clause qualifying the state of knowledge, referring to rasikhun. In the Nahj al Balagha, Ali ibna abi Talib says that the rasikhuna fil ilm believe in the unknown in the light of the known. As explained in the commentary of verse 3 of al Baqarah the knowledge of the ghayb (unknown) is with the infinite, therefore, the awareness of the finite created beings, even if they are endowed with the divine insight, cannot be at par with the absolute wisdom of the ghayb ul mutlaq, the hayyul qayyum creator. All that which becomes (in obedience) effective, as soon as He wills, is knowable to man. A finite being can know as much as the infinite all-wise likes him to know and grow in knowledge, which implies that basically his knowledge was insufficient but he rises towards the level of perfection, with the help of divine endowment, on his own merits, to become aware of the meanings of all that which has been revealed in the book, because, if it is not so, such revelations (mutashabihat) would be unprofitable and frustrating. So what Imam Ali ibna abi Talib and Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir have said in this connection is true.

[Shakir 3:8] Our Lord! make not our hearts to deviate after Thou hast guided us aright, and grant us from Thee mercy; surely Thou art the most liberal Giver.
[Yusufali 3:8] "Our Lord!" (they say), "Let not our hearts deviate now after Thou hast guided us, but grant us mercy from Thine own Presence; for Thou art the Grantor of bounties without measure.
[Pickthal 3:8] Our Lord! Cause not our hearts to stray after Thou hast guided us, and bestow upon us mercy from Thy Presence. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Bestower.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:8]

This is a prayer of the rasikhuna fil ilm, a precaution to avoid possible perversion of the mind and the heart, even after receiving the guidance. They pray for Allah's mercy on the day of judgement. The aim and purpose of their lives in the world, a temporary and transient stay, is to make preparation for the eternal life of the hereafter.

[Shakir 3:9] Our Lord! surely Thou art the Gatherer of men on a day about which there is no doubt; surely Allah will not fail (His) promise.
[Yusufali 3:9] "Our Lord! Thou art He that will gather mankind Together against a day about which there is no doubt; for Allah never fails in His promise."
[Pickthal 3:9] Our Lord! Lo! it is Thou Who gatherest mankind together to a Day of which there is no doubt. Lo! Allah faileth not to keep the tryst.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:9] (see commentary for verse 8)
[Shakir 3:10] (As for) those who disbelieve, surely neither their wealth nor their children shall avail them in the least against Allah, and these it is who are the fuel of the fire.
[Yusufali 3:10] Those who reject Faith,- neither their possessions nor their (numerous) progeny will avail them aught against Allah: They are themselves but fuel for the Fire.
[Pickthal 3:10] (On that Day) neither the riches nor the progeny of those who disbelieve will aught avail them with Allah. They will be fuel for Fire.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:10]

This verse and the next two verses, 11 and 12, contain a clear prophecy of the defeat of the Holy Prophet's enemies. After their defeat in the battle of Badr, the Quraysh of Makka began to make highly organised preparations to exterminate the unarmed Muslims, who were not only very few in number but also were surrounded by potential enemies from all sides, and were also exposed to the subversive activities of the hypocrites right in their midst. It was the plan of the pagans to put an end to the new religion of Islam which was uprooting their ignorant and idolatrous life. The Muslims were living under a state of siege, therefore, they were asked to retain their arms while praying (Nisa: 102). Under such adverse circumstances, the almighty Lord inspired the Holy Prophet to make a bold and definite prophecy of the victory of a poorly equipped and helpless few over the vast financial resourcefulness and proven military skill of the allied multitude.

[Shakir 3:11] Like the striving of the people of Firon and those before them; they rejected Our communications, so Allah destroyed them on account of their faults; and Allah is severe in requiting (evil).
[Yusufali 3:11] (Their plight will be) no better than that of the people of Pharaoh, and their predecessors: They denied our Signs, and Allah called them to account for their sins. For Allah is strict in punishment.
[Pickthal 3:11] Like Pharaoh's folk and those who were before them, they disbelieved Our revelations and so Allah seized them for their sins. And Allah is severe in punishment.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:11]

Dab means "like the case of" or "wont", but in this verse it points out the resolute efforts the Quraysh were making to take revenge from the Holy Prophet and his few followers. Abu Sufyan, the father of Mu-awiyah and grandfather of Yazid, the chief of the branch of Ummiyah, a zealous votary of the idols, a mortal foe of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt, the leader of all the pagan clans of Makka, induced the Jewish and the Christian tribes to take up arms against the small group of Muslims.

[Shakir 3:12] Say to those who disbelieve: You shall be vanquished, and driven together to hell; and evil is the resting-place.
[Yusufali 3:12] Say to those who reject Faith: "Soon will ye be vanquished and gathered together to Hell,-an evil bed indeed (to lie on)!
[Pickthal 3:12] Say (O Muhammad) unto those who disbelieve: Ye shall be overcome and gathered unto Hell, an evil resting-place.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:12]

The decisive victory at Badr gave notice of danger to the Jews of Bani Qaniqa who lived in the suburbs of Madina. They wanted to throttle the growing power of the Muslims. They sent a delegation, headed by Kab ibna Ashraf, to Makka to add fuel to the fire of revenge burning in the hearts of the Quraysh and to assure them with their out and out support for the total annihilation of the Muslims. Abu Sufyan went to Madina to enlist the support of the hypocrites who could play a very important role in the overall scheme, hatched against the Muslims, because they were in close contact with the Jews. They had embraced Islam to enjoy the privileges given to the early converts, otherwise at heart they were infidels. They readily joined hands with the intriguer-in-chief, Abu Sufyan, in the house of Salam ibna Mishkan. To revive the old hostilities between the Aus and the Khazraj tribes of Ansars, who had agreed to live in peace after coming into the fold of Islam, was the first objective of the unholy alliance. They took the first step but the Holy Prophet immediately nipped the mischief in the bud. When verse 149 of Ali Imran was revealed the two tribes listened to the Holy Prophet's counsel and remained united.

According to the plan, the Jews began to intimidate the unarmed Muslim men and Muslim women. A typical incident is narrated in the books of history that at a Jew's shop, when a bystander Jew cut off the garment of a Muslim woman, all the Jew spectators laughed at her nakedness. The Holy Prophet came and warned the Jews by reciting this verse. The Jews lost their temper, announced annulment of the treaty they had made with the Holy Prophet, and avowed to prove their strength in the battlefield. At once their forts were besieged. Neither the pagans of Makka, nor their allies (Bani Nadhir and Bani Qurayza), nor the hypocrites could rescue them. Abdullah ibna Obay tried to negotiate a settlement on their behalf. Ultimately the Holy Prophet agreed to set them free on the condition that they should migrate to some far away place. They were allowed to take all their possessions with them. The Holy Prophet had to take such steps to forestall hostile actions against the believers.

[Shakir 3:13] Indeed there was a sign for you in the two hosts (which) met together in encounter; one party fighting in the way of Allah and the other unbelieving, whom they saw twice as many as themselves with the sight of the eye and Allah strengthens with His aid whom He pleases; most surely there is a lesson in this for those who have sight.
[Yusufali 3:13] "There has already been for you a Sign in the two armies that met (in combat): One was fighting in the cause of Allah, the other resisting Allah; these saw with their own eyes Twice their number. But Allah doth support with His aid whom He pleaseth. In this is a warning for such as have eyes to see."
[Pickthal 3:13] There was a token for you in two hosts which met: one army fighting in the way of Allah, and another disbelieving, whom they saw as twice their number, clearly, with their very eyes. Thus Allah strengtheneth with His succour whom He will. Lo! herein verily is a lesson for those who have eyes.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:13]

In the battle of Badr 313 Muslims were set to fight 1000 pagans, more than threefold their number, but by Allah's will, the army of the believers, fighting in the way of Allah saw the disbelieving host as twice their number, as has been made known to them in verses 44 and 66 of al Anfal.

The battle of Badr was indeed a turning point in the mission of the Holy Prophet. It was a decisive victory. The slain on the enemy's side included many of his most influential opponents. Who made this promised victory possible? Ibna Kathir has written that on the day of the battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet gave the standard to his twenty years old brother, Ali ibna abi Talib. Tabari and other historians have said that Ali and Hamza were the only two warriors who not only killed the well-known warriors of the enemy in single combats but also destroyed the enemy's fighting force beyond recovery. For details, study the books of history, in which are also mentioned the names of those who conveniently kept themselves aloof from the fighting on this critical day, described as a sign of Allah, but, after the departure of the Holy Prophet, became rulers to deflect and depart from the true purpose of the religion of Allah.

[Shakir 3:14] The love of desires, of women and sons and hoarded treasures of gold and silver and well bred horses and cattle and tilth, is made to seem fair to men; this is the provision of the life of this world; and Allah is He with Whom is the good goal (of life).
[Yusufali 3:14] Fair in the eyes of men is the love of things they covet: Women and sons; Heaped-up hoards of gold and silver; horses branded (for blood and excellence); and (wealth of) cattle and well-tilled land. Such are the possessions of this world's life; but in nearness to Allah is the best of the goals (To return to).
[Pickthal 3:14] Beautified for mankind is love of the joys (that come) from women and offspring; and stored-up heaps of gold and silver, and horses branded (with their mark), and cattle and land. That is comfort of the life of the world. Allah! With Him is a more excellent abode.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:14]

To understand this verse in its true perspective, the meaning of the phrase "love or desire of the lust of earthly pleasures" should be grasped in the light of the teachings of Islam. As Islam does not subscribe to asceticism, lawful use of essential things has not been referred to here. Hubbush shahawati means extreme, reckless and infatuated appetite or passion to own and enjoy things for the sake of possession and enjoyment. Islam teaches man not to get irrationally involved even with lawful possessions. A true believer receives good things lawfully as due return for his labour or services but keeps them in trust with himself, to be distributed as and when commanded by Allah. He is always ready to part with them because he does not attach himself to them in the sense of hubbush shahawati. Being a man he is allowed to desire happiness and satisfaction but is required to keep his feelings and emotions in check to attain moral and spiritual refinement which, in return, enables him to make an offering of his means of satisfaction to the service of the Lord. It is more trying and demanding to control passions than not to have them at all. Total suppression of feelings and desires and mortification of the flesh betrays an escapist tendency to avoid test and trial.

You shall not attain to righteousness until you spend (in the way of Allah) of what you love. (Ali Imran: 92)

The best example of having good things (property, wives, children, relatives, friends, honour and fame) yet staying detached so as to sacrifice all of them in the way of Allah is found in Karbala. Imam Husayn willingly made an offering of all that which he had to his Lord.

He has created life and death that He may try you (to prove) which of you is best in conduct; (Mulk: 2)

Man has been endowed with life to be tried. In like manner he is tried and tested with family, wealth and other possessions.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

There is an unchanging conflict between the empty and perishable sensuous pleasures and the lasting intellectual and spiritual delight and bliss.

[Shakir 3:15] Say:Shall}I tell you what is better than these? For those who guard (against evil) are gardens with their Lord, beneath which rivers flow, to abide in them, and pure mates and Allah's pleasure; and Allah sees the servants.
[Yusufali 3:15] Say: Shall I give you glad tidings of things Far better than those? For the righteous are Gardens in nearness to their Lord, with rivers flowing beneath; therein is their eternal home; with companions pure (and holy); and the good pleasure of Allah. For in Allah's sight are (all) His servants,-
[Pickthal 3:15] Say: Shall I inform you of something better than that? For those who keep from evil, with their Lord, are Gardens underneath which rivers flow wherein they will abide, and pure companions, and contentment from Allah. Allah is Seer of His bondmen,
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:15]

The life of the hereafter, after death, is a continuation of the life of the world. It is a state of spiritual bliss for those who have made, here, sincere efforts to safeguard themselves with full awareness Allah's laws-guarding against the evil of transgressing the boundaries of shari-ah known as piety, which earns as due recompense, corresponding blessings, to its actual degree of application in the life of this world. The life of the pious in the spiritual realm either ascends or stays stationary, but never droops. Piety trains the soul to ascend towards perfection in the hereafter.

The gardens, the rivers and the purified spouses, promised in this verse, are the minimum recompense that will be made available to the pious, but Allah's pleasure, the most supreme bliss conceivable, is the ultimate destination of the ascension of the human soul for spiritual perfection.

[Shakir 3:16] Those who say: Our Lord! surely we believe, therefore forgive us our faults and save us from the chastisement of the fire.
[Yusufali 3:16] (Namely), those who say: "Our Lord! we have indeed believed: forgive us, then, our sins, and save us from the agony of the Fire;"-
[Pickthal 3:16] Those who say: Our Lord! Lo! we believe. So forgive us our sins and guard us from the punishment of Fire;
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:16]

It is a prayer to prepare for the life of the hereafter. It is essential to make sincere efforts to purify and refine the soul, and in addition one must feel the pain of conscience for not attaching oneself to those who have earned Allah's pleasure- the blessed and beloved friends of Allah.

[Shakir 3:17] The patient, and the truthful, and the obedient, and those who spend (benevolently) and those who ask forgiveness in the morning times.
[Yusufali 3:17] Those who show patience, Firmness and self-control; who are true (in word and deed); who worship devoutly; who spend (in the way of Allah); and who pray for forgiveness in the early hours of the morning.
[Pickthal 3:17] The steadfast, and the truthful, and the obedient, those who spend (and hoard not), those who pray for pardon in the watches of the night.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:17]

The patient, the truthful, the devout and those who spend in the way of Allah are entitled to receive the grace of Allah. Also the effectiveness of prayer at early dawn to seek forgiveness has been emphasised in this verse.

[Shakir 3:18] Allah bears witness that there is no god but He, and (so do) the angels and those possessed of knowledge, maintaining His creation with justice; there is no god but He, the Mighty, the Wise.
[Yusufali 3:18] There is no god but He: That is the witness of Allah, His angels, and those endued with knowledge, standing firm on justice. There is no god but He, the Exalted in Power, the Wise.
[Pickthal 3:18] Allah (Himself) is Witness that there is no Allah save Him. And the angels and the men of learning (too are witness). Maintaining His creation in justice, there is no Allah save Him the Almighty, the Wise.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:18]

Allah himself bears witness to His own unity. It is His infinite mercy that He makes known His self-subsisting and everliving existence (wajib ul wujud) to His created beings who, otherwise, could never know anything about Him. See commentary of verse 255 of al Baqarah. The finite created beings can only say that there is no god save Allah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In this verse shahadat (bearing witness) has been restricted to Allah, the angels and those endowed with (divine) knowledge, although in many other verses it is stated that every being in the heavens and the earth glorifies Allah and bears witness to His unity (tawhid). The restriction is justified because, in this verse, shahadat has been used in the sense of a particular knowledge which contains perceptual insight to realise the truth of His tawhid Allah directly knows that "there is no god save He", because He is the known, the knowing and the knower. Those who have attained the perceptual insight of the realisation of truth, by complete mental absorption of the absolute, possess the same quality of knowledge. Whoever reaches this stage naturally becomes entitled to bear witness over His creation. In the Quran such witnesses have been described as shuhada. In verses 41 of al-Nisa and 89 of al Nahl, Allah says that He will call the Holy Prophet as witness over other witnesses.

For ulul ilm (those endowed with divine knowledge) see commentary of rasikhuna fil ilm in verse 7 of this surah.

Qa-iman bil qist means that Allah is the vigilant, enduring and (ever) lasting upholder and maintainer of justice.

Any unjust being, or any being with an iota of iniquity, can never be God, because if arbitrariness had been applied as a primary force to effect and control the universe, no law, physical as well as social, devoid of reason and equity, would be valid and operative. In that case, God could not have an essential existence to be proved by reason, but a contingency that might or might not exist. So it is an imperative fact that absolute justice is ingrained and implanted in the activity of the active factor. Absolute justice, by itself, is one of the aspects of the infinite mercy of the almighty Lord, which regulates and manages His kingdom, the whole universe. It is essentially evident in His every will and act.

He has prescribed for Himself mercy, (An-am: 12)

Justice is one of the 5 fundamental doctrines of Islam-Original, Shi-aism. It distinguishes Shi-a faith from other schools of thought. The 5 roots of the faith (usul al din) are given below:

(1)Tawhid: There is no god save Allah.

(2)Adl: Allah is all-just.

(3)Risalat: The prophets or messengers of Allah, appointed by Him, were truthful, holy and infallible. The last messenger of Allah, the seal of prophethood, is Muhammad al Mustafa.

(4) Imamat: After the Holy Prophet, the office of the prophethood was terminated, but the divine guidance continued, for which Allah appointed the twelve Imams in the progeny of the Holy Prophet.

(5) Qiyamat: The day of final judgement.

Faith in Allah's justice is essential. The laws made by Him to operate the universe are precise and decisive. These are bound by rules based upon justice, and are not arbitrarily changed. That is why there is complete harmony in the working of the whole creation, otherwise there would have been chaos and confusion. All Allah's acts are just and right.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

If qa-iman bil qist is treated as the adverbial clause qualifying the state of ulul ilm (those endowed with knowledge), then grammatically it should have been in plural, therefore, it is true that it qualifies the state of the divine unity. It lays stress on the interrelation between the unity of His essence and His justice, which, as His all embracing attribute, defines and determines His action, and reflects itself in all His attributes. The source of all the attributes manifesting in His justice is the unity of His essence. According to the Holy Prophet the structure of the whole universe stands on the foundation of His justice. So none can perceive Him and His unity unless one upholds and maintains justice. Justice is with unity and unity is with justice. They are correlative and inseparable. Islam teaches us that all excellences flow from the sublime source of justice and all vices proceed from the base root of injustice-see Nisa: 135; Ma-idah: 8; and Hadid :25.

In verse 7 of this surah the Quran refers to the decisive verses (muhkamat) as the essence of the book, in the light of which all the other complex verses (mutashabihat) should be interpreted. In view of the interrelation between the unity of His essence and His justice, all the verses in His book of creation and in His book of legislation should be interpreted in a manner which must always be in harmony with the unity of His essence and His justice. The logical method, prescribed by the Quran, is to proceed from the known to the unknown. As the whole universe stands on the basis of the unity and justice of the absolute, it is essential to prescribe justice (adl) as the second article of faith, immediately after tawhid, the first article of faith.

[Shakir 3:19] Surely the (true) religion with Allah is Islam, and those to whom the Book had been given did not show opposition but after knowledge had come to them, out of envy among themselves; and whoever disbelieves in the communications of Allah then surely Allah is quick in reckoning.
[Yusufali 3:19] The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account.
[Pickthal 3:19] Lo! religion with Allah (is) the Surrender (to His Will and Guidance). Those who (formerly) received the Scripture differed only after knowledge came unto them, through transgression among themselves. Whoso disbelieveth the revelations of Allah (will find that) lo! Allah is swift at reckoning.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:19]

Islam means submission or surrender to the will of Allah. The act of submitting his self by the believer to the will of Allah has been mentioned in verse 112 of al Baqarah and verse 22 of Luqman. The Quran also makes it known that the religion of Islam (submission to the will of Allah) was preached by all the messengers of Allah in the language of the people amongst whom they were sent by Him. Islam is also the natural religion of every human being.

The nature (caused by) Allah, in which He has created man. (Rum: 30)

The Holy Prophet has said:

Every child is born in the mould of nature (Islam). It is the parents who make him (or her) a Jew or a Christian.

Right from the beginning, every messenger of Allah preached Islam, but misunderstanding, bias and hatred among the followers of the prophets corrupted the original message.

Ayat means signs. Every prophet and every imam through whom the unity of His essence is proved and made known is His sign. Whoever denies His signs (including the prophets and the imams) is a disbeliever.

This verse is also applicable to those who differed after coming into the fold of Islam.

See verses 85 to 87 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Islam is the only religion of Allah. The differences among the various religions and their sects are due to the tendency of revolt against the truth after it has been made known.

[Shakir 3:20] But if they dispute with you, say: I have submitted myself entirely to Allah and (so) every one who follows me; and say to those who have been given the Book and the unlearned people: Do you submit yourselves? So if they submit then indeed they follow the right way; and if they turn back, then upon you is only the delivery of the message and Allah sees the servants.
[Yusufali 3:20] So if they dispute with thee, say: "I have submitted My whole self to Allah and so have those who follow me." And say to the People of the Book and to those who are unlearned: "Do ye (also) submit yourselves?" If they do, they are in right guidance, but if they turn back, Thy duty is to convey the Message; and in Allah's sight are (all) His servants.
[Pickthal 3:20] And if they argue with thee, (O Muhammad), say: I have surrendered my purpose to Allah and (so have) those who follow me. And say unto those who have received the Scripture and those who read not: Have ye (too) surrendered? If they surrender, then truly they are rightly guided, and if they turn away, then it is thy duty only to convey the message (unto them). Allah is Seer of (His) bondmen.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:20] Allah reveals His will through reason, therefore, when every evidence, based upon reason, has been established to prove the truth of Islam, every rational human being should discard pride and prejudice and surrender his self (wholly) to Allah. All members of the human society, the Jews and the Christians who have been given the book and those who do not follow any heavenly scripture, will be joined together in one brotherhood, if they see the light of reason and submit to the will of Allah (in other words) by accepting the universal religion of Islam.

"If this be Islam", asks Goethe, "do we not all live in Islam?"

"Yes", answers Carlyle," all of us that have any moral life, we all live so."

As the Holy Prophet has observed, Islam is the natural religion that a child, left to itself, would develop.

Islam is the religion of common-sense. The Holy Prophet delivered the message and preached it, but he is not responsible if the people, even after being rightly guided, go astray.

[Shakir 3:21] Surely (as for) those who disbelieve in the communications of Allah and slay the prophets unjustly and slay those among men who enjoin justice, announce to them a painful chastisement.
[Yusufali 3:21] As to those who deny the Signs of Allah and in defiance of right, slay the prophets, and slay those who teach just dealing with mankind, announce to them a grievous penalty.
[Pickthal 3:21] Lo! those who disbelieve the revelations of Allah, and slay the prophets wrongfully, and slay those of mankind who enjoin equity: promise them a painful doom.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:21]

The consistent rebellious attitude of the Jews towards the prophets of Allah and the righteous who enjoin justice (verse 18 of this surah) is referred to in this verse. Please refer to Matthew 23: 30, 34, 35 in the commentary of verse 61 of al Baqarah. The Jewish plan to kill the Holy Prophet is also inferred through this verse.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The three categories of the rebels, mentioned in this verse, are given below:

(1) Those who disbelieve in the signs of Allah.

(2) Those who slay and persecute the advocates and enjoiners of justice, the holy Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt, the successors of the Holy Prophet.

[Shakir 3:22] Those are they whose works shall become null in this world as well as the hereafter, and they shall have no helpers.
[Yusufali 3:22] They are those whose works will bear no fruit in this world and in the Hereafter nor will they have anyone to help.
[Pickthal 3:22] Those are they whose works have failed in the world and the Hereafter; and they have no helpers.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:22]

It is a prophetic declaration as well as an admonition that the schemes of the rebels, described in verse 21 of this surah, will come to naught in this world, and on the day of requital no one will save them from the eternal punishment.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Good deeds done by a believer will be rewarded in full, but the good deeds of the above noted rebels, if there be any, shall go to waste. The crimes, listed in the preceding verse as 1, 2 and 3, are so interrelated that one leads to the other, as pointed out in verse 10 of al Rum, which was appropriately quoted by Bibi Zaynab binta Ali in her reply to Yazid when he said, after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn, that Muhammad played a game to establish a Hashemite kingdom, otherwise neither any revelation was revealed, nor any angel came to him.

The evil was the consequence (end) to those who wrought (dealt in) evil, because they denied the signs (revelations) of Allah and made fun of them. (Rum: 10)

[Shakir 3:23] Have you not considered those (Jews) who are given a portion of the Book? They are invited to the Book of Allah that it might decide between them, then a part of them turn back and they withdraw.
[Yusufali 3:23] Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who have been given a portion of the Book? They are invited to the Book of Allah, to settle their dispute, but a party of them Turn back and decline (The arbitration).
[Pickthal 3:23] Hast thou not seen how those who have received a portion of the Scripture invoke the Scripture of Allah (in their disputes) that it may judge between them; then a faction of them turn away, being opposed (to it)?
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:23]

The Tawrat and the Injil are only a portion of revelation, a glimpse of the glory of the truth. A portion of the book, Allah's revealed books in general, was sent down, in all ages, to prepare and train the human soul for the highest level of intelligence and spirituality, at which stage the completed and perfect revelation, the Quran, was revealed to the Holy Prophet, referred to as the book of Allah in this verse.

Prophet Isa had also informed the people that there was still much that he could say to the people, but the burden would be too great for them then. He also added: "When he comes who is the spirit of truth, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but will tell only what he hears; and he will make known to you the things that are coming." See John 16: 12 and 13.

It is reported that in the early days of the prophethood of the Holy Prophet, a married man of large means was caught while committing adultery with a woman. The Jewish priests did not want to punish them by stoning to death as prescribed in the law of Musa. Presuming that the Holy Prophet did not know their scripture, they referred the case to him so that the culprits could avoid the punishment by his misjudgement. The Holy Prophet announced the correct judgement in the light of the Tawrat but the Jews persisted that it was not in their book. The Holy Prophet asked them to bring their own distorted edition of the Tawrat. Even in their corrupted version Leviticus 20: 10 to 21 confirmed the decree pronounced by the Holy Prophet. Yet they did not agree and arrogantly persisted in their point of view.

In John 8: 4 to 7 it is stated that an adulteress should be stoned according to the law of Moses but Jesus had said: Let he who has not sinned stone her. This is a clear example of unauthorised addition because Isa himself announced: Do not suppose that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I did not come to abolish, but to complete. I tell you this: so long as heaven and earth endure, not a letter, not a stroke, will disappear from the law until all that must happen has happened. (Matthew 5: 17, 18).

And Musa has said: You shall keep all my rules and my laws and carry them out. (Leviticus 20 : 22).

According to their books Isa could not amend the law of Musa. Holy Quran says that Isa had the authority to amend the law of Musa (see verses 50 and 51 of this surah), but he did not change this law because verse 2 of al Nur confirms it.

The adulterer and the adulteress-scourge you each of them (with) a hundred stripes.

It is related in Safi that once the Holy Prophet went to a school of the Jews. In reply to their question he said that he followed the religion of Ibrahim. "But Ibrahim was a Jew", said the Jews. Then the Holy Prophet asked them to refer to their book, which though profusely tampered with, yet contains various passages about the faith of Ibrahim and other prophets and also information about the advent of the Holy Prophet.

[Shakir 3:24] This is because they say: The fire shall not touch us but for a few days; and what they have forged deceives them in the matter of their religion.
[Yusufali 3:24] This because they say: "The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days": For their forgeries deceive them as to their own religion.
[Pickthal 3:24] That is because they say: The Fire will not touch us save for a certain number of days. That which they used to invent hath deceived them regarding their religion.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:24]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The arrogant persistence to follow their own opinion, based upon conjecture, in the application of divine laws, created a rebellious tendency in the people of the book, which encouraged them to presume that ultimate salvation is obtainable only by mere (what is said and nothing else) declaration of the faith, and if there is punishment for misdeeds and wrongdoing, it would be only for a certain number of days. As mentioned in verse 22 of this surah, there shall be no helper for them on the day of reckoning.

[Shakir 3:25] Then how will it be when We shall gather them together on a day about which there is no doubt, and every soul shall be fully paid what it has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly?
[Yusufali 3:25] But how (will they fare) when we gather them together against a day about which there is no doubt, and each soul will be paid out just what it has earned, without (favour or) injustice?
[Pickthal 3:25] How (will it be with them) when We have brought them all together to a Day of which there is no doubt, when every soul will be paid in full what it hath earned, and they will not be wronged.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:25]

Every soul shall be paid in full that which it has earned in the life of this world, therefore, the true believers cannot be condemned to hell for ever, because the reward of true belief is not eternal punishment. As mentioned in verse 21 of this surah, a true believer does not slay the prophets, nor persecutes and murders those who enjoin justice (the Ahl ul Bayt). Those who believe and follow the 5 roots of religion (usul al din) are the true believers. A true believer may be punished for his sins, before he receives the reward owing to his true belief, which is promised in this verse. It is reasonable to conclude that punishment precedes reward. Only the disbelievers, murderers and persecutors of the prophets and of those who enjoin justice (the Ahl ul Bayt) will be condemned to hell for ever.

[Shakir 3:26] Say: O Allah, Master of the Kingdom! Thou givest the kingdom to whomsoever Thou pleasest and takest away the kingdom from whomsoever Thou pleasest, and Thou exaltest whom Thou pleasest and abasest whom Thou pleasest in Thine hand is the good; surety, Thou hast power over all things.
[Yusufali 3:26] Say: "O Allah! Lord of Power (And Rule), Thou givest power to whom Thou pleasest, and Thou strippest off power from whom Thou pleasest: Thou enduest with honour whom Thou pleasest, and Thou bringest low whom Thou pleasest: In Thy hand is all good. Verily, over all things Thou hast power.
[Pickthal 3:26] Say: O Allah! Owner of Sovereignty! Thou givest sovereignty unto whom Thou wilt, and Thou withdrawest sovereignty from whom Thou wilt. Thou exaltest whom Thou wilt, and Thou abasest whom Thou wilt. In Thy hand is the good. Lo! Thou art Able to do all things.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:26]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Sovereignty belongs to Allah; He is the sole and the ultimate authority in the domains of creation and legislation. Every thing submits to the authority of the master of the universe, the absolute sovereign, because all things in the universe have been created by Him, and therefore, Islam, the only religion of Allah and the only means of salvation, stands for total submission to Allah's will-a truism candidly summed up in these verses in the form of a prayer. The Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt have rightly advised the faithfuls to recite this prayer at all occasions, so that the conviction in the omnipotence of the almighty permeates their hearts and minds to guide them in all their mental and physical activities. A complete resignation to Allah's will is possible only when man believes that it is Allah who alone can do and undo things, conceivable and inconceivable, easy and difficult. Then the grace of the merciful Lord abounds, because in His hand is all good. He is the absolute sovereign. None has any right or claim upon Allah. He bestows His bounties on whomsoever He likes. There should be no complaint, nor grudge, nor frustration. With total resignation to His will, man must pray and invoke His mercy to obtain fulfilment of his legitimate wants and needs. Ibna Abbas says that these verses contain the ism al azam, the greatest name of Allah, therefore, its recitation for obtaining fulfilment of desires brings positive results, provided that in thoughts and deeds the supplicant wholeheartedly relies upon Allah's omnipotence and judgement, and remains thankful in all events and under all circumstances. Nothing is impossible for Him.

An usurper or a tyrant, by actual control of the machinery of government, may become a defacto ruler. The Nimruds and the Fir-awns were defacto rulers. They also claimed divinity. A large number of people accepted them as gods, but none of them was a de jure God. The theoreticians, in the employment of the usurpers and tyrants, try to misguide the people by arguing that a de facto wielder of power is also a de jure ruler. It is a fact that there are some chosen representatives of Allah who, by right, are entitled to exercise the authority, given to them by Allah Himself, which they do as the de jure authorities (Baqarah: 247; Nisa: 54, Munafiqun: 8), although the defacto kingdom may be in the hands of others who are rightly described as usurpers in the political thought of true and original Islam.

Yazid bin Mu-awiyah, the de facto ruler, argued with the Ahl ul Bayt by quoting this verse that he was also the de jure authority. Bibi Zaynab binta Ali proved his deceitful claim false by showing the inherent weakness in the theory of fatalism. In her analytical, objective, and rational discourse she quoted verse 178 of Ali Imran and verse 10 of al Rum to establish the fact that those who disbelieve, imagine that the rein Allah gives them does good to them, whereas, truly Allah gives them rein that they may grow in sinfulness, for which there is a disgraceful punishment for them, because evil is the consequence to those who deal in evil by denying the signs of Allah and making a mockery of them.

The chosen representatives of Allah, His signs, are the real authorities to administer God's kingdom, because of their total submission to Allah's will (Baqarah: 247; Nisa: 54 and Munafiqun: 8). To enable the true faithfuls to identify the rightful inheritors of God's kingdom, an extract from the prayer of Imam Ali bin Husayn al Zaynal Abidin is given below:

O my Allah, this office (administration of the God's kingdom) belongs to the leaders appointed by Thee, Thy chosen friends, because it was founded and preserved for Thy fearless trustees, who have been particularly elected to execute this highest function, but Thy representatives have been wronged by the usurpers, every trick is used to harass them and to snatch from them their rights, again and again intimidated and exposed to dangers. Thy book has been thrown to the winds, commandments made obligatory by Thee have been falsified and put out of context, and Thy prophet's way of life has been discontinued and discarded. Why? Thou knows best.

(Du-a al Jumu-ah-Sahifa al Kamilah)

If the theory of might is right is accepted then usurpation will have no meaning at all.

[Shakir 3:27] Thou makest the night to pass into the day and Thou makest the day to pass into the night, and Thou bringest forth the living from the dead and Thou bringest forth the dead from the living, and Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou pleasest without measure.
[Yusufali 3:27] "Thou causest the night to gain on the day, and thou causest the day to gain on the night; Thou bringest the Living out of the dead, and Thou bringest the dead out of the Living; and Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou pleasest, without measure."
[Pickthal 3:27] Thou causest the night to pass into the day, and Thou causest the day to pass into the night. And Thou bringest forth the living from the dead, and Thou bringest forth the dead from the living. And Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou choosest, without stint.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:27] (see commentary for verse 26)
[Shakir 3:28] Let not the believers take the unbelievers for friends rather than believers; and whoever does this, he shall have nothing of (the guardianship of) Allah, but you should guard yourselves against them, guarding carefully; and Allah makes you cautious of (retribution from) Himself; and to Allah is the eventual coming.
[Yusufali 3:28] Let not the believers Take for friends or helpers Unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah: except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself; for the final goal is to Allah.
[Pickthal 3:28] Let not the believers take disbelievers for their friends in preference to believers. Whoso doeth that hath no connection with Allah unless (it be) that ye but guard yourselves against them, taking (as it were) security. Allah biddeth you beware (only) of Himself. Unto Allah is the journeying.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:28]

The polytheists who worship false deities stand opposite to those who believe in one true God. There cannot be any friendship between them because friendship is built upon the foundation of mutual love. Love is a very active force. Love between two individuals, more often than not, exercises impending influence upon each other's habits, thoughts and feelings. Due to this active phenomenon in human nature, tawallah, love of the Ahl ul Bayt (Shura: 23), has been prescribed as one of the fundamentals of original Islam- Shi-aism, because he who loves the Ahl ul Bayt will accept their teachings, follow their guidance, and reflect their qualities in his character. In the case of friendship between a monotheist and a polytheist, the strict monotheist, under a state of attachment and love, may lose his sense of reasoning and begin to like idolatry, and in the end become a practising idol-worshipper. Therefore the believers have been warned not to take the unbelievers as friends.

Awliya is the plural of wali which implies nearness, proximity, contiguity, therefore, it can be used for any of the following: friend, beloved, helper, protector, patron, administrator and master.

In a multilateral political and economic structure the believers are allowed to deal with them as human beings and live in harmony with them in day to day life. Only love or attachment has been prohibited. The provision of "except when, fearing a danger from them, you (have to) guard yourselves against them" is a very important guideline in this verse. If there is a genuine danger to life, permission is given to make a show of friendship with the adversary, remaining faithful to the true faith at heart. To guard oneself against an unprovoked danger to life in a helpless situation, or to avoid dishonour and ostracism, is known as taqiyah in the Shi-a school of thought, prescribed strictly in the light of this verse, because Allah does not want to make less the number of His true believers if there is no occasion or need of their lives to be sacrificed to further His cause and mission. They are allowed to live and serve Him in secret.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq (according to a Sunni tradition) is reported to have said that "Allah warns you to beware of Him" implies "Allah knows all that which is in the heart, and He wants to see only His love in the hearts, therefore, He warns the people not to allow anything except His love to take possession of their hearts."

Heart is given to man to fill it with the love of God. If love of anything or any person, except love of those enjoined by Allah (Shura: 23), is lodged therein it would be judged as a misappropriation on the day of reckoning.

See Aqa Mahdi Puya's note in verse 31 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to the doctrine of taqiyah under certain circumstances a faithful can make friends with his adversary to save his life and property, otherwise friendship between a believer and an unbeliever is prohibited because it would make the believer drift in the direction of unbelief.

Taqiyah means to hide one's faith to protect one's life and property in the interest of the faith, permissible according to this verse (see books of fiqh). Nifaq means to pretend to believe what one actually does not believe for worldly gains (Nahl: 106), condemned in the Holy Quran again and again.

Allah's pleasure should be the object of hiding or making known that which is in one's heart.

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